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Alcohol Concept Map

Mr Khemistry

Alcohol Concept Map

Alcohol concept map

This is the 4th installation of a series of organic concept maps. Part 2 phenol will be uploaded next week, watch this space!

Free free to print out for personal use but do not distribute ๐Ÿ™‚

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Alkene Concept Map

Mr Khemistry

Alkenes Functional Group Concept Map

Alkenes concept map

You can use this series of organic concept maps to familiarize yourself with the various transformations of the functional groups.

Using this format, we can also practice drawing skeletal structures for organic molecules.

You can download this and print it out for your own usage, not for distribution please ๐Ÿ™‚

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Kinetics – The Big Idea by Mr Khemistry

Mr Khemistry


Kinetics is the study of speed/rate of a chemical reaction.

Definition: Rate of reaction is the change in concentration of reactant or products over time.

Question: How do we know what’s the change in concentration of reactant or products?

Ans: We have to MONITOR it.

Question: How do we monitor it?

Ans: Look at the reaction equation, what has changed from left-hand side (LHS) to the right-hand side (RHS)? We can monitor colour intensity (colourimeter), volume of gas evolved (downward displacement of water/gas syringe), loss of mass (mass balance), change in pressure (manometer), electrical conductivity, pH (pH probe, titration) etc.

Image result for colorimeter


Main Product


An important term in this chapter is “Order of Reaction”. We can only determine the order of reaction with respect to a particular reactant through experiments. Note: Order cannot be determined from the chemical equation.

Consider this chemical reaction:

A + B -> C + D

To find the order wrt reactant A, we will have to conduct expts keeping B constant and varying [A] to monitor the effect on rate. Likewise, to find the order wrt B, we will need to keep A constant and vary [B]. One of the ways to keep the other [reactant] constant is to make it in large excess.

To find out more about kinetics or other topics, come join our weekly JC tuition classes at bukit timah shopping centre.

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Life skill

Mr Khemistry

Life Skill

Let me start with a little anecdote. What if i tell you i have a fully paid vacation for you and your whole family to Hawaii, for 10 days. This offer has no catch except that you must leave tomorrow morning. Would you go? I bet most of us would scramble to delegate our tasks to do for the next 10 days just so that we can go for this trip no?

And since we can do that, why don’t we increase our productivity everyday just practising this hypothetical situation? Imagine packing all you can do in 10 days into just 1 day. And do it repeatedly for the next 30 days. Just how much can you get done in this month?

The truth is, our capacity is a mental state of mind. All limitations are self-imposed. Men can do whatever we set our minds to do. Nothing that we PURPOSED to do (set a goal to achieve) will be impossible.

So why is this important for us to realize? Because it is a life skill. Students often lament the lack of time. I believe it’s more a lack of purpose, or goals. Why do some students (even adults) find it hard to get up from their beds in the morning? Always feeling lethargic and tired. Procrastinating on basically anything and everything? Distracted by social media, tv etc. Again, it is due to the lack of a big enough goal/purpose.

If we set goals that affect us emotionally, that excites us, galvanize us, would we be distracted easily? Or struggle to get out of bed? Probably not. Hence, set goals. Don’t procrastinate. Move! Take action and watch your life change. You’re welcome ๐Ÿ™‚

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Energetics Thermochemistry

Mr Khemistry

Energetics Thermochemistry

Energetics is such a broad topic students sometimes have difficulty understanding what the question is asking for. This post aims to help build a mental shortcut for students to “funnel” the question into broad question types. Thereafter to quickly apply the thought process for solving it.

In the picture below, you see the four broad question structures on the left. On the right side is the approach to solve certain types of questions. Additionally, there are also acronyms to help students remember the sequence of answer, e.g. F.A.I.L for Born Haber Cycles and BE.R.P. for bond energy.

Energetics Question Structure

Energy cycles can only be done well if you have a good grasp of the common definitions of different enthalpy change. Point 5 on the left shows the three main components of definitions for enthalpy change.

Energy level diagrams are simply a special type of energy cycle where the arrows point upward for endothermic reactions and downwards for exothermic reactions. Learn how to construct energy level diagrams quickly in our weekly classes. It is easier to learn how to construct energy cycles/levels when you can see how other students do it. Moreover, we can also see what kind of mistakes are commonly made.

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More Energetics!(Born Haber Diagram)

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