Theories of acids and bases *New!
Arrhenius theory – acid produce H+ in water, base produces OH– in water.
Bronsted Lowry theory – acid produces H+, base accepts H+. Conjugate pair concept.
Lewis theory – acid as electron pair acceptor, base as electron pair donor.
Gases: Vm = 22.7 dm3 at stp (1 bar, 273 K), 24 dm3 rtp (1 atm, 293 K)
Group 2 & 17 (no longer Roman Numerals) now under Periodicity.
Group 17: Not required to describe the reactions of halide ions with sulfuric acid. Not required to describe the reaction of chlorine with cold and hot aqueous sodium hydroxide.
Group 2: learn thermal stability of carbonates instead of nitrates.
Equilibria: Show understanding that the position of equilibrium is dependent on the standard Gibbs free energy change of reaction, ΔG.
ΔG < 0 means forward reaction is spontaneous (equilibrium constant is >> 1, position of equilibrium lies to the right), > 0 means forward reaction is not spontaneous but backward reaction is (equilibrium constant is < 1, position of equilibrium lies to the left). ΔG = 0 means the system is at equilibrium.
Part 2 here